Sumugan is an obscure "god of the plain", who is briefly referenced in the Sumerian poem, In Assyrian mythology, Tashmetu is the divine consort of. The people of the Mesopotamian period were very religious, and they created gods for everything that existed on earth; the list is never-ending. Shul-pa-e's name means "youthful brilliance", Shul-utula was a tutelary deity known only as the personal deity to. Geshtinanna is a rural agricultural goddess sometimes associated with, Most historians generally agree that Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of. Whether this is in any way related to her functions is unclear (Edzard 1957-71: 299-301). Aside from their patron gods, the Mesopotamians prayed to the other gods daily. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Mesopotamian_deities&oldid=995895774, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enlil, later known as Ellil, is the god of wind, air, earth, and storms. Aglibol is the Palmyrene god of the moon. Enzag is one of several deities created by the sexual union of Enki and Ninhursag. Shamash's symbol is a disc, sometimes with sun-rays, or a winged disc. Ningal, “the great lady” was his wife, the sun god Utu-Shamash was his son, and Inanna, the goddess of love, was his daughter. However, some scripts say that he was the son of the god of all lands, Bel. Written Forms: d ŋeštin-an-na, d TIN-an-na, d ŋeštin; Emesal TT spellings: d mu-tin-an-na, d mu-tin; as Belet-ṣeri: d be-let-EDIN Normalised Forms: Geštinanna, G̃eštinanna; Belet-ṣeri Geštinanna in Online Corpora. The Mesopotamian storm god varied from place to place. Siduri is a wise goddess who was believed to keep an alehouse at the edge of the world. Ninsar is the daughter of Enki and Ninhursag. Atargatis is a Syrian goddess who was worshipped in the early centuries AD. Imdugud, later known as Anzû, is an enormous bird-like monster with the head of a lion that was so huge that the flapping of its wings was thought to be the cause of sandstorms and whirlwinds. He is among the oldest of the Mesopotamian gods. He had many other sanctuaries, such as those found at Beth-Dagon in Asher and Gaza. His central temple was the temple of Ekur in Nippur, which people believed he had built for himself. They left behind statues in a position of worship, which would pray continually to the gods on their behalf. The gods of Mesopotamia were represented in human form. I love history. The lion and the bull were considered his sacred animals. Nanshe - goddess of prophecy, fertility and fish. The civilizations of Mesopotamia were polytheistic, meaning that they worshipped many gods. Hamban, later known as Napirisha, is the Elamite god of the sky. Aruru is a mother goddess, possibly the same as Ninhursag. Utu, later known as Shamash, is the ancient Mesopotamian god of the Sun. The son of Enlil and Ninhursag, Ninurta first appeared in texts during the third millennium BC as the god of local towns and agriculture. Nanaya was originally a goddess of lust and sexuality who shared many of her aspects with Inanna. His function as the god of crop fertility or vegetation was handed down to Baal in 1500 BC. Depicted as a courageous warrior, he held a bow and an arrow along with a mace called a sharur. [54] Many major deities in Sumerian mythology were associated with specific celestial bodies:[55] Inanna was believed to be the planet Venus,[56][32] Utu was believed to be the Sun,[57][32] and Nanna was the Moon. Emesh is a farmer deity in the Sumerian poem. In Babylonia and Assyria, he was called Adad, in Ugrait, he was Hadad, and in Sumer, he was known as Iskur. [22] Later they became regarded as chthonic Underworld deities. In another Sumerian flood myth, Enlil rewards Ziusudra with immortality for surviving the massive flood. Ilaba was briefly a major deity during the Akkadian Period. Some old inscriptions also state that he was married to Bau. Nabu was said to be the inventor of writing. Ninmena is a Sumerian mother goddess whose name means "Lady of the Crown". Like most sky gods, Anu, although theoretically the highest god, played only a small role in the mythology, hymns, and cults of Mesopotamia. As well as being the god of fire, he was also the refiner of metallic objects, and hence the patron of metalworkers. Ordinary Mesopotamians visited their temples with offerings, such as animals to sacrifice, to please their gods. A god under the title "Bel", distinct from the Babylonian god with the same title, was worshipped as the chief god of the Palmyrene pantheon in Syria during the late first millennium BC. Adad’s symbol was a cypress, and his sacred number was six. Some of the mythology resembles the Biblical accounts of the creation of the earth where land was separated from the sky, and also a replica of the story of Noah’s flood and the ark. Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer. Inanna Inanna was the goddess of love and war. Ningirsu changed to Ninurta sometime around the first millennium BC. Dagon was the western Semitic god of the fertility of crops. Nabu - god of wisdom and writing. [24][22] This is likely due to the fact that each member of the Anunnaki had his or her own individual cult, separate from the others. Simut is an Elamite god who serves as a herald. Hutran is an Elamite god who was believed to be the son of, Inshushinak is an Elamite god was originally the patron god of the city of. Nanna, Enzu or Zuen ("Lord of Wisdom") in Sumerian, later altered as Suen and Sin in Akkadian, is the ancient Mesopotamian god of the Moon. Godchecker guide to Ninurta, the Sumerian God of Farming from Mesopotamian mythology. Why the Gods Destroyed Humans: The Biblical and Mesopotamian Flood Narratives November ... track our relationship with God and nature? Ama-arhus is a fertility goddess who was worshipped in Uruk during the Hellenistic Period. Enki, later known as Ea, and also occasionally referred to as Nudimmud or Ninšiku, is the god of the subterranean freshwater ocean. Gunura is a deity of uncertain status. The aura of a god in his temple could so attach itself to the temple, or architectural parts of it in particular, also to implements he used, and to the city which housed the temple, in such a way that these various things also became gods and received offerings as a mark of the fact. [18] The names of over 3,000 Mesopotamian deities have been recovered from cuneiform texts. According to the Epic of Gilgamesh, Inanna unleashed the Bull of Heaven on Enkidu after he refused her demand … His wife was Gula, the goddess of healing. This may have come about because hunter-gatherers were guided by the moon as they traveled. We Hebrews understand Mesopotamian magic and the consequences for practicing such wickedness very well.. For if you believe in such a "magic" you cannot deny that there is a GOD as well.. From a local deity worshiped in the city of Eridu, Ea evolved into a major god, Lord of Apsu (also spelled Abzu), the fresh waters beneath the earth (although Enki means literally “lord of the earth”). Image Credit: pinterest According to all Mesopotamian religion facts written ever, the goddess Ishtar or Inannawas one of the most prominent deities worshiped by Babylonians as well as Sumerians. The Sumerians regarded Inzak as the chief god of the Dilmunite pantheon. He was also thought to be an oracle and was associated with Sin, the god of the moon. [19][17], The Anunnaki are a group of deities first attested during the reign of Gudea (c. 2144 – 2124 BC) and the Third Dynasty of Ur. In Babylonia and Assyria, he was called Adad, in Ugrait, he was Hadad, and in Sumer, he was known as Iskur. Due to its many civilizations, the Mesopotamians had a variety of gods, and the ones who made it on to this list represent just a few of them. Lugal-irra and Meslamta-ea are a set of twin gods who were worshipped in the village of Kisiga, located in northern. Each god was responsible for a different area of life. Nergal - god of plague, war, and the sun in its destructive capacity; later husband of Ereshkigal. These statues show that the Mesopotamians … Silili is an obscure goddess who was apparently the mother of all horses. His cult declined in 1230 BC when Nippur was taken over by the Elamites. Ninlil was the wife of Enlil, the ruler of the gods. Ishkur, later known as Adad, is the Mesopotamian god of storms and rain. Nungal, also known as Manungal, was the daughter of Ereshkigal. Enlil is involved in a Sumerian myth where he is seen separating heaven (An) from earth (Ki) as an act of making the land a place for humans. Hegir-Nuna, also known as Gangir, is one of the seven daughters of Baba. [51][52] In Sumerian religion, the most powerful and important deities in the pantheon were the "seven gods who decree":[53] An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna. In the Sumero-Akkadian pantheon, Nergal was a secondary Mesopotamian god. [15] Sometimes a deity's cult statue would be transported to the location of a battle so that the deity could watch the battle unfold. Mandanu is a god of divine judgement who was worshipped during the Neo-Babylonian Period. Pabilshag is a god whose worship is attested from the Early Dynastic Period onwards. It is believed that Hammurabi, the Babylonian king, derived most of his laws from Shamash. • Anu (God of heaven) was the original ruler of the Mesopotamian pantheon. Shamash (aka Sumerian "Utu"), the sun God The visible planets were also associated with divinities: 1. Sirtur was a goddess of sheep known from inscriptions and passing comments in texts. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Top 10 Sumerian Inventions and Discoveries, Top 9 Outstanding Examples of Mesopotamian Art, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. ", "Inanna/Ishtar as a Figure of Controversy", "Haya (god); Spouse of Nidaba/Nissaba, goddess of grain and scribes, he is known both as a "door-keeper" and associated with the scribal arts. Utu is drawn holding a saw like instrument. Ennugi is "the canal inspector of the gods". [15] The major deities of the Mesopotamian pantheon were believed to participate in the "assembly of the gods",[6] through which the gods made all of their decisions. [21][22], The three most important deities in the Mesopotamian pantheon during all periods were the deities An, Enlil, and Enki. É-eš-bar-zi-da temple in Ur and other temples in, Ninsianna is the Sumerian deity of the planet. Siyâšum, Narunte, and Niarzina are the three sisters of the Elamite goddess. These waters separated into two distinct principles: the male principle, Apsu, which was fresh water and the female principle, Tiamat, salt water. Its roots lie in the prehistory of Sumerian civilization, before the invention of writing or the formation of city-states. His symbol was a stylus on a tablet, and due to this, clay tablets with calligraphy writing were offered at his temples. The gods were all different, so let’s now have a look at some of the most famous ancient Mesopotamian deities. He was represented as a half-fish, half-goat creature. He was believed to be the benefactor of humans, listening to their prayers, bringing life from death, and protecting livestock and agriculture. Mesopotamian religion has a long history of development, stretching well beyond the third millennium BC. Later the Babylonians, Akkadians, Hurrians, and Assyrians also began worshiping him. Mesopotamia is a historical region located in the Middle East. While Ea created mankind, Enlil attempted to destroy it with a large flood because their noise disturbed his sleep. He was recognized as the god of war during the second millennium BC after he was featured in the Epic of Anzu. He planned to use clay to create humans so that they could serve the gods by performing their work. Hahanu is an obscure god of uncertain function who is referenced in passing by several inscriptions. He was the son of Enlil and Ninlil and one of his most prominent myths was an account of how he was conceived and how he made his way from the Underworld to Nippur. Erragal, also known as Errakal, is a relatively rarely-attested deity who was usually regarded as a form of Erra, Gareus was a god introduced to Uruk during late antiquity by the, Gatumdug is a goddess associated with the city-state of. As part of Scientists in Synagogues, Congregation Etz Hayim in Arlington, VA hosted a multidisciplinary program looking at the flood from both a geological-historical and a comparative-literature perspective. In addition, he brought forward the patronage of arts and crafts. Aware of Enlil’s intentions, Ea had already told the sage Atrahasis to construct an ark to help humanity escape the devastation. Lulal is a god who is closely associated with Inanna. Her myth mostly revolves around descending to the underworld and causing the death of Enkidu. The religious development of Mesopotamia and Mesopotamian culture in general was not particularly influenced by the movements of the various peoples into and throughout the area, particularly the south. [7], The ancient Mesopotamians believed that their deities lived in Heaven,[9] but that a god's statue was a physical embodiment of the god himself. Shamash was the Mesopotamian sun god as well as the god of justice. Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity. [6] This assembly was seen as a divine counterpart to the semi-democratic legislative system that existed during the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2112 BC – c. 2004 BC). Thank you so much for the info on Mesopotamia. Adad - A storm god, who was also responsible for floods. He is also known as the governor of the universe and, as such, is seen seated on a throne with a staff and a ring in his hands as the symbols of righteousness and justice. 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