2.2.3 Furrow irrigation The WinSRFR program, The movement of soil water curve . 2. Figure 5. Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. The focus of surface irrigation engineering is at the water use level, the individual irrigated field. 2.3.1 Inlet discharge control Reclamation of salt-affected soils is easily accomplished with basin irrigation and provision for drainage of surface runoff is unnecessary. systems. The classification of surface methods is perhaps somewhat arbitrary in technical literature. Issues associated with surface irrigation. The recession phase 4 1.3. Discussion 1 DISCUSSION OF SURFACE IRRIGATION IN IRAQ 1. The infiltration rates are an unknown variable in irrigation practice. The incidence of surface irrigation process consists of four phases, as illustrated in Figure 7 below. Surface irrigation systems are supported by a number of on- and off-farm structures which control and manage the flow and its energy. The depth of water applied to any point in the field is a function of the opportunity time, the length of time for which water is present on the soil surface. Small land holdings are generally not subject to the array of surface irrigation practices of the large commercial farming systems. The water is applied rapidly to the entire basin and is allowed to infiltrate. It may be furrowed or corrugated, have raised beds for the benefit of certain crops, but as long as the inflow is undirected and uncontrolled into these field modifications, it remains a basin. Water is applied to individual borders from small hand-dug checks from the field head ditch. Irrigation scheduling is a theme covered separately by several publications such as the FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24 (Rev) by Doorenbos and Pruitt (FAO, 1977). These systems will be dealt with in more detail in a later section. 1967). In order to facilitate efficient surface irrigation, these structures should be easily and cheaply constructed as well as easy to manage and maintain. For design and evaluation purposes, these guidelines will note elements of the conveyance and distribution system, especially those near the field such as flow measurement and control, but will leave detailed treatment to other technical sources. Examples of these alternative practices are discussed and illustrated in Section 5. The reduction in infiltration is a result of surface consolidation, filling of cracks and micro pores and the disintegration of soil particles during rapid wetting and consequent surface sealing during each drying phase. Many basins are so small that precision equipment cannot work effectively. Before selecting surface irrigation over other types of irrigations, one must investigate the advantages and disadvantages of surface irrigation. PHASES OF IRRIGATION: The logistics of irrigation water It includes all operations since irrigation water enters in our farm to the output of the nutrient solution by the emitter: 2.1.- Treatment: Depending on the physical and chemical nature of the water it is necessary to design a specific treatment for this search. It is possible to improve the performance of most surface . Infiltration and contact time 4 1.3.1. The Physical systems of Surface irrigation systems as a whole consist of four subsystems. If there is long duration between two rotations, there is likelihood of water stress resulting in wilting point during the recession stage. Figure 7. Time is cumulative since the beginning of the irrigation, distance is referenced to the point water enters the field. What methods are used? In this paper, the same basic procedures are applied to the design of various surface systems, deviating where needed to make the procedures both straightforward and sufficiently accurate. Thus, the system operates by moving the check-dam from bay to bay along the upper end of the field. In this configuration, the head ditch is divided into a series of level bays which are differentiated by a small change in elevation. The period of time between the end of the advance phase and the shut-off of the inflow is termed the wetting, ponding or storage phase. The most common piped method of furrow irrigation uses plastic or aluminium gated pipe like that shown in Figure 14. The bays are typically longer and narrower compared to basin irrigation and are orientated to align lengthwise with the slope of the field. The higher inflow reaches the end of the field sooner but it increases both the duration and the magnitude of the runoff. Depletion is the interval between cut off and the appearance of the first bare soil under the water. A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and covers the field gradually. (210–VI–NEH, draft April 2006) Part 623 National Engineering Handbook Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all it The changes in the lesser-developed and developing countries are less dramatic. The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. To reach maximum levels of efficiency, the flow per unit width must be as high as possible without causing erosion of the soil. The four phases of surface irrigation 3 1.2.1. Estimation of the infiltration rate using the actual furrow method 7 1.3.3. The period of time between the end of the advance phase and the shut-off of the inflow is termed the wetting, ponding or storage phase. The soil acts as the growing medium in which water is stored and the conveyance medium over which water flows as it spreads and infiltrates. These are: 1) The water supply subsystem 2) The water delivery subsystem 3) The water use subsystem Land preparation is largely a land grading problem which will be discussed in Section 5. simplicity with which different phases of the irrigation could be described. It is useful to note here that in observing surface irrigation one may not always observe a ponding, depletion or recession phase. Diversion structures perform several tasks including (1) on-off water control which allows the supply agency to allocate its supply and protects the fields below the diversion from untimely flooding; (2) regulation and stabilization of the discharge to the requirements of field channels and watercourse distribution systems; (3) measurement of flow at the turnout in order to establish and protect water entitlements; and (4) protection of downstream structures by controlling sediments and debris as well as dissipating excess kinetic energy in the flow. In surface irrigation events, there are four phases i.e. The wetting and drying cycles reduce infiltration rates resulting in faster advance rates and higher uniformity[3] than continuous flow. This results in poor uniformity with high application at the top end with lower application at the bottom end. Shorter furrows are commonly associated with higher uniformity of application but result in increasing potential for runoff losses. The management of water in the field channels involves flow measurement, sediment and debris removal, divisions, checks, drop-energy dissipators, and water level regulators. The tailwater deep percolation trade-off can also be solved by collecting and recycling the runoff to improve surface irrigation performance. As noted previously, there are two features that distinguish a surface irrigation system: (a) the flow has a free surface responding to the gravitational gradient; and (b) the on-field means of conveyance and distribution is the field surface itself. [4] On those soils where surging is effective it has been reported to allow completion of the irrigation with a lower overall water usage and therefore higher efficiency and potentially offer the ability to practice deficit irrigation. Phase 2, then the irrigation water will flow out of the land. One common use of this technique includes the irrigation of pasture for dairy production. Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation Part 623 NationalEngineeringHandbook (210–VI–NEH, September 2012) 4–v Figures Figure 4–1 Layout and function of irrigation system components 4–2 Figure 4–2 Basic phases of a surface irrigation event 4–3 Figure 4–3 Typical basin irrigation system in the Western United States 4… Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. Figure 11. The volume of water on the surface begins to decline after the water is no longer being applied. Surface irrigation systems have two principal sources of inefficiency, deep percolation and surface runoff or tailwater The remedies are competitive. Pipe materials are usually plastic, steel, concrete, clay, or asbestos cement, or they may be as simple as a wooden or bamboo construction. The gated pipe may be connected to the main water supply via a piped distribution network with a riser assembly like the one shown in Figure 13, directly to a canal turnout, or through an open channel to a piped transition. Phase 1, when the water dalirkan to land, there will be the addition of water on the surface of the land to flooding the entire surface of the land. Here, we will not detail out sub surface irrigation methods. Under border check irrigation, water will directly wet the entire surface as the whole bay area is designed as the flow path. Volume balance methods compare the applied volume to surface and subsurface storage volumes in order to calculate parameters such as infiltration rate or the rate of water advance down the field. Slip-form concrete lining in the USA. There are three options available to solve this problem, at least partially: (1) dyke the downstream end to prevent runoff as in basin irrigation; (2) reduce the inflow discharge to a rate more closely approximating the cumulative infiltration along the field following the advance phase, a practice termed 'cutback'; or (3) select a discharge which minimizes the sum of deep percolation and tailwater losses, i.e., optimize the field inflow regime. Opportunities for Improving Irrigation Efficiency and Uniformity– 1. Then the irrigation water either runs off the field or begins to pond on its surface. It is not the intent of this guide to be comprehensive with regard to the selection and design of these structures since other sources are available, but it is worthwhile to note some of these structures by way of presenting a larger view of surface irrigation. 2.3 Requirements If a field is level in all directions, is encompassed by a dyke to prevent runoff, and provides an undirected flow of water onto the field, it is herein called a basin. A typical turnout structure is shown in Figure 7. How much groundwater pumping is used? Historically, the elements of an irrigation system have not functioned well as a system and the result has too often been very low project irrigation efficiencies. 2.2.4 Uncontrolled flooding. Border strip, otherwise known as border check or bay irrigation could be considered as a hybrid of level basin and furrow irrigation. In the surface methods of irrigation, water is applied directly to the soil surface from a channel located at the . At about the same time, researchers like Strelkoff and Katapodes (1977) made major contributions with efficient and accurate numerical solutions to these equations. Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations which can be broadly classified as: (1) basin irrigation; (2) border irrigation; (3) furrow irrigation; and (4) uncontrolled flooding. Conveyance, distribution and management structures, 2.4.2 Conveyance, distribution and management structures. 2.3.2 Wastewater recovery As the inf… Needs Assessment --1. A volume balance approach to determine the parameters of the Kostiakov or modified Kostiakov infiltration equations in border and furrow irrigation is presented. Very large mechanized farming equipment has replaced animal-powered planting, cultivating and harvesting operations. The evaluation methods can be applied if desired, but the design techniques are not generally applicable nor need they be since the irrigation practices tend to be minimally managed. Some of the more common flow control structures for open channels are shown in Figure 10. Drain back level basins (DBLB) or contour basins are a variant of basin irrigation where the field is divided into a number of terraced rectangular bays which are graded level or have no significant slope. After the water reaches the end of the field it will either run-off or start to pond. Is the water supply mainly from canals? Furrows provide better on-farm water management flexibility under many surface irrigation conditions. They range from inadequate design and management at the farm level to inadequate operation of the upstream water supply facilities. to surface irrigation Most fields have a head ditch or pipeline running along the upper side of the field from which the flow is distributed onto the field. Fields are typically set up to follow the natural contours of the land but the introduction of laser levelling and land grading has permitted the construction of large rectangular basins that are more appropriate for mechanised broadacre cropping. Figure 5 shows two typical furrow irrigated conditions. Figure 7. Surge Flow system. This chapter uses volume balance methods to design surface irrigation systems. Also in this category are the surface irrigation systems like check-basins which irrigate individual trees in an orchard, for example. When the inflow stream is introduced by the upstream end of the plane, water advances with a sharply defined wetting front down the slope toward the downstream end in what is referred to here as the advance phase of the irrigation flow process. A smaller wetted area reduces evaporation losses. The water is applied to the top end of the bay, which is usually constructed to facilitate free-flowing conditions at the downstream end. The recession phase describes the time period while the water front is retreating towards the downstream end of the field. 1.6–1.8). Surface Irrigation. Figure 10. Each should be standardized for mass production and fabrication in the field by farmers and technicians. Consequently, some means of emergency surface drainage is good design practice. There are few crops and soils not amenable to basin irrigation, but it is generally favoured by moderate to slow intake soils, deep-rooted and closely spaced crops. The precision of preparing the field for planting has improved by an order of magnitude with the advent of the laser-controlled land grading equipment. 2.4.1 Diversion structures ILRI, 1989, Effectiveness and Social/Environmental Impacts of Irrigation Projects: a Review. on for 1 hour off for 1½ hour). As water is applied to the top end of the field it will flow or advance over the field length. Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations that can broadly be classified as: • basin irrigation • border irrigation • furrow irrigation • wild flooding The distinction between the various classifications is often subjective. Water may be supplied using gated pipe, siphon and head ditch, or bankless systems. In general, it is more labour intensive than other irrigation methods. Water infiltrates through the wetted perimeter and spreads vertically and horizontally to refill the soil reservoir. Sprinkler irrigation is application of water under pressure as simulated rain. Microcomputers and programmable calculators provide several features for today's irrigation engineers and technicians. The advance phase refers to that length of time as water is applied to the top end of the field and flows or advances over the field length. Subirrigation is the distribution of water to soil below the surface; it provides moisture to crops by upward capillary action. During advance, the water moves down the channel. One can find optimal designs and management practices for a multitude of conditions because designs historically requiring days of effort are now made in seconds. … In traditional basins no water is permitted to drain from the field once it is irrigated. Surface Irrigation Process. The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. Typical bay dimensions are between 10-70m wide and 100-700m long. DESIGN OF SURFACE IRRIGATION, LECTURE SUPPORTING MATERIALS 2 purpose of the physical system is to supply water to an area for crop production. Basin irrigation has a number of limitations, two of which, already mentioned, are associated with soil crusting and crops that cannot accommodate inundation. These may include: (1) an accumulation of salinity between furrows; (2) an increased level of tailwater losses; (3) the difficulty of moving farm equipment across the furrows; (4) the added expense and time to make extra tillage practice (furrow construction); (5) an increase in the erosive potential of the flow; (6) a higher commitment of labour to operate efficiently; and (7) generally furrow systems are more difficult to automate, particularly with regard to regulating an equal discharge in each furrow. Furrow systems use outlets which can be directed to each furrow. Furrow irrigation configurations (after USDA-SCS, A surface irrigation event composes of the four phases outlined below (Walker, 1989) and illustrated graphically in Figure 2. After the water reaches the end of the field it will either run-off or start to pond. This can be achieved through increasing flow rates or through the practice of surge irrigation. Surface irrigation methods include furrow, border, and basin irrigation (Figs. Surface irrigation is mainly divided in basin, border, and furrow systems. Surface irrigation involves movement of water as shallow flow over planes or in channels. The time and space references shown in Figure 1 are relatively standard. 6.3 SURFACE IRRIGATION METHODS .- - A brief about surface and subsurface irrigation method is given in Unit 1. 2. Other articles where Surface irrigation is discussed: horticulture: Water management: In surface irrigation water is distributed over the surface of soil. The designs of these structures have been standardized since they are small in size and capacity. The precision of the field topography is also critical, but the extended lengths permit better levelling through the use of farm machinery. Even today it is often more economical to regulate the inflow rather than to collect and pump the runoff back to the head of the field or to another field, tailwater reuse systems are more cost-effective when the water can be added to the flow serving lower fields and thereby saving the cost of pumping. The field is divided into a number of bays or strips, each bay is separated by raised earth check banks (borders). The attention here then is focused on inflow regulation and tailwater control. Surface irrigation methods are the oldest, and are those that use the soil surface to conduct and infiltrate the applied water. Precision land levelling is very important to achieving high uniformities and efficiencies. In the developed and industrialized countries, land holdings have become as much as 10-20 times as large, and the number of farm families has dropped sharply. Surface irrigation events have 3 phases: advance, storage, and recession. et al., 1971). Basins and borders usually receive water through buried pipes serving one or more gated risers within each basin or border. 1984; Walker & Skogerboe 1987; Alazba 1999). Figure 2 illustrates the 'irrigation system' and some of its features. This is not to say, however, that furrow irrigation enjoys higher application efficiencies than borders and basins. Surface irrigation is an irrigation type where gravity force is used to distribute water over the soil surface. Figure 3. Today in the graduate and undergraduate study of surface irrigation engineering, microcomputer and programmable calculator utilization is, or should be, common practice. 18 - 34 . Furrows may range anywhere from less than 100 m to 2000 m long depending on the soil type, location and crop type. The spacing between adjacent furrows is governed by the crop species, common spacings typically range from 0.75 to 2 metres. Large difference in water that crops require and the flow irrigation system actually delivers results in low field water application efficiency. The structural elements of a surface system perform several important functions which include: (1) turning the flow to a field on and off; (2) conveying and distributing the flow among fields; (3) water measurement, sediment and debris removal, water level stabilization; and (4) distribution of water onto the field. However, surface irrigation has limitations because it increases the chance of human contact with the effluent. The advance and recession curves are therefore trajectories of the leading and receding edges of the surface flows and the period defined between the two curves at any distance is the time water is on the surface and therefore also the time water is infiltrating into the soil. However, this practice increases the tailwater problem because the flow at the downstream end must be maintained until a sufficient depth has infiltrated. It is also practiced in various horticultural industries such as citrus, stone fruit and tomatoes. and reuse. The depletion phase is that short period of time after cut-off when the length of the field is still submerged. Furrows are often employed in basins and borders to reduce the effects of topographical variation and crusting. 2.2 Surface irrigation methods The process of surface irrigation can be said to include four phases: advance phase; storage phase; depletion phase; and recession phase. In Surface Irrigation, water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by the help of gravity. However, in looking for a root cause, one most often retreats to the fact that infiltration changes a great deal from irrigation to irrigation, from soil to soil, and is neither predictable nor effectively manageable. For practical purposes, there may not be a depletion phase and recession can be ignored. 2.1.1 Definition. There are three types of Surface Irrigation: Level Basin Irrigation, furrow irrigation, and Border Strip Irrigation. [1] This is also a method of surface irrigation. Designs for flow measurement and drop-energy dissipator structures need more attention and construction must be more precise since their hydraulic responses are quite sensitive to their dimensions. Successful operation of these systems is reliant on a sufficient elevation drop between successive bays. Is laser guided land leveling used in Iraq? Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. The object of border strip irrigation is to advance a sheet of water down a narrow strip between low ridges or borders and to get the water into the soil as the sheet advances. 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